Are IFR Conditions Present?


Suomi NPP Visible (0.70 µm) Day Night Band Imagery and Infrared Brightness Temperature Differences (11.45 µm – 3.74 µm), 0731 UTC on 24 November 2015 (Click to enlarge)

Low clouds (with a sharp southern edge) were over northern Wisconsin during the early morning of 24 November 2015. Are IFR Conditions present? Can you tell from the satellite imagery alone? The cloud bank stretched over northern Wisconsin seems thick compared to the bank of clouds over northeastern Wisconsin (centered on southern Green Bay). The city lights of Duluth are not visible in the same way that the city lights of Green Bay are in the Day Night band imagery. Clouds in general are distinct with the near-full moon providing ample illumination.

Both GOES and MODIS Brightness Temperature Difference fields, below, show a signal consistent with low clouds over most of northern WI and adjacent regions.  But are there IFR Conditions?


GOES-13 Brightness Temperature Difference (10.7 µm – 3.9 µm) Fields (0730 UTC) and MODIS Brightness Difference Fields (11 µm – 3.9 µm) (0749 UTC)

IFR Probability fields blend the information available from satellite (are water-based clouds present?) with model output to yield a refined diagnostic of IFR Conditions. If there is saturation in the lowest levels (the lowest 1000 feet) of the model, then Probabilities of IFR Conditions are increased. If the lowest levels of the model are relatively dry, in contrast, then IFR Probabilities are reduced. On the morning of 24 November, the latter condition occurred over northern Wisconsin. IFR Probabilities computed from MODIS and GOES-13 satellite values are shown below. Probabilities are very low over most of Wisconsin where mid-level stratus (with varying bases) was present: IFR conditions were not generally observed in the regions where water-based clouds were indicated by the satellite. Mid-level stratus can look, from the top, very similar to fog, but it’s impossible for the satellite alone to discern what’s happening at the cloud base. Model data helps the IFR Probability algorithm screen out regions where mid-level stratus is occurring.


MODIS-based GOES-R IFR Probabilities (0751 UTC), GOES-13-based GOES-R IFR Probabilities (0731 UTC), and GOES-based GOES-R IFR Probabilities with surface observations of ceilings and visibilities (Click to enlarge)