IFR Probability discriminates between fog and elevated stratus over Texas

GOES-16 IFR Probability field, 1127 UTC on 13 February, along with observations of ceilings and visibility. (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields on 13 February at 1127 UTC, above, suggest a clear difference in sky conditions between northeast Texas, where IFR Probabilities are very high, and where IFR conditions are widespread, and north-central Texas, around Dallas, where IFR Probabilities are small, and where ceilings and visibilities do not match IFR Conditions.

In contrast, the Brightness Temperature Difference field, below, (and the Nighttime Microphysics Red/Green/Blue product, shown here in a toggle with the Brightness Temperature Difference field) shows little difference in signal between the region of IFR conditions over northeast Texas and non-IFR conditions over Dallas and environs.

GOES-16 views the top of the cloud, and a region of fog and a region of stratus can look very similar in the Night Fog Brightness Temperature Difference. Because IFR Probability fields fuse satellite observations of low clouds with Numerical Model Output estimates of near-surface saturation, IFR Probabilities can differentiate between regions of elevated stratus (where near-surface saturation is not suggested by the model), such as near Dallas, and regions of stratus that is obstructing visibility (where near-surface saturation is suggested by the model).

A toggle of all three fields is shown at the bottom of this post.

GOES-16 Night Fog Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), 1127 UTC on 13 February 2018 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities, Night Fog Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) and NightTime Advanced Microphysics RGB, 1127 UTC on 13 February 2018 (Click to enlarge)

Advection Fog with a strong storm in the Midwest

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities, 1152 UTC on 22 January 2018, along with 1200 UTC surface observations of ceilings and visibilities (Click to enlarge)

When skies are clear, and radiation fog forms, limiting visibilities, it’s straightforward to use satellite-only products to gauge where stratus and fog might exist. Extratropical storms generate multiple cloud layers, however; when warm sector air under multiple cloud layers overruns snow-covered or frozen ground, dense advection fog can develop, and that fog is difficult to discern from satellite because it is typically overlain by higher clouds.

GOES-R IFR Probabilities, above, (and Low IFR Probabilities here) show highest probabilities in general occur in the regions where IFR conditions were observed on 22 January.  Over much of Wisconsin and Minnesota, the IFR Probability field is mostly uniform.  Such a flat field is characteristic of a region where satellite data cannot be used to judge whether low stratus is present (because high clouds are also present).  Rapid Refresh model information only is used to outline regions of low-level saturation. There is more variability to the IFR Probability field — that is, it is more pixelated — over southwest Iowa, for example, and over North Dakota.  In these regions, low stratus clouds are being observed by satellite and both satellite and model data can be used to estimate regions of significantly reduced ceilings and visibilities.

Consider the Brightness Temperature Difference shown below. The 10.3 µm – 3.9 µm product is typically used to identify stratus and radiation fog, and it does detect those low clouds over North Dakota, and over Kansas, Missouri and southern Iowa, and over Ontario.  However, the dense clouds associated with the storm over much of Minnesota and Wisconsin meant that this brightness temperature difference field, and also the NightTime Microphysics Red Green Blue Product (which is sometimes used to detect fog), could not ‘see’ the fog over the upper midwest.

Know the limitations, strengths and weaknesses of your products as you use them!  On 22 January, High Clouds underscored limitations in the Brightness Temperature Difference product, and in the NightTime Microphysics product that relies on the Brightness Tempearature Difference product for fog detection.  That limitation meant the product was not useful in identifying IFR conditions in parts of the Upper Midwest.

GOES-16 “Night Fog” Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) at 1152 UTC on 22 January 2018. Surface reports of ceilings and visibilities at 1200 UTC are also plotted (Click to enlarge)

Dense Fog Advisories over the Plains

Dense Fog Advisories were issued over parts of the central and northern Plains states on Friday January 5. For example, from the North Platte Office (similar warnings were issued by Billings, Rapid City and Bismark offices):

URGENT – WEATHER MESSAGE
National Weather Service North Platte NE
634 AM CST Fri Jan 5 2018

…Areas of dense fog likely this morning…

.Areas of fog reducing visibilities below one quarter mile at
times will be likely from parts of southwest into the central
Nebraska Sandhills this morning. With the fog occurring where
temperatures are below freezing, some slick spots may develop on
area roads and sidewalks as well.

NEZ025-026-037-038-059-071-051800-
/O.NEW.KLBF.FG.Y.0001.180105T1234Z-180105T1800Z/
Thomas-Blaine-Logan-Custer-Lincoln-Frontier-
Including the cities of Thedford, Halsey, Dunning, Purdum,
Brewster, Stapleton, Broken Bow, North Platte, Curtis, Eustis,
and Maywood
634 AM CST Fri Jan 5 2018

…DENSE FOG ADVISORY IN EFFECT UNTIL NOON CST TODAY…

The National Weather Service in North Platte has issued a Dense
Fog Advisory, which is in effect until noon CST today.

* Visibilities…as low as one quarter mile or less at times.

* Timing…Through the morning hours with visibilities improving
after noon CST.

* Impacts…Hazardous driving conditions due to low visibility.
Fog may freeze on area roads and walkways as well.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS…

A Dense Fog Advisory means visibilities will frequently be
reduced to less than one quarter mile. If driving, slow down, use
your headlights, and leave plenty of distance ahead of you.

&&

$$

JWS

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields captured the development of these regions of dense fog. The animation from 0400-1200 UTC on 5 January is below. Highest values of IFR Probability are consistent in the areas where IFR Conditions are developing and where Dense Fog Advisories were issued.

GOES-16 IFR Probability, 0402 – 1207 UTC on 5 January 2018 (Click to animate)

Note that IFR Probability fields are fairly high over Iowa and the eastern Dakotas, regions where mid-level stratus was widespread but where IFR observations did not occur. On this day, Low IFR Probability fields better screened out this region of mid-level stratus. The toggle below compares IFR Probability and Low IFR Probability on 0957 UTC. The region where dense fog advisories were issued shows high values in both fields. The stratus deck over Iowa and the eastern Dakotas shows much smaller values of Low IFR Probability.

GOES-16 also has a ‘Fog Product’ brightness temperature difference (10.3 – 3.9) that has historically been used to detect low clouds. However, when cirrus clouds are present, as on 5 January, the efficacy of this product in fog detection is affected. Although fog and stratus detection is identifiable underneath the moving cirrus (the same is true in the Advanced NightTime Microphysics RGB product below), identifying the low cloud as stratus or fog from satellite data is a challenge because a consistent color married to IFR Probability does not exist.

GOES-16 ‘Fog Product’ Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), 0402 – 1207 UTC, 5 January 2017 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB, 0402-1207 UTC on 5 January 2018 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields maintain a consistent look from night to day. Both the (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) Brightness Temperature Difference field and the Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB (that uses the ‘Fog Product’ BTD) will change because the increase in reflected solar radiation at 3.9 µm will change the sign of the Brightness Temperature Difference field. There is a Daytime Day/Snow/Fog RGB Product in AWIPS, and the toggle below from 1612 UTC on 5 January compares IFR Probability and the Day/Snow/Fog RGB. As with the nighttime products, the presence of high (or mid-level) clouds makes it difficult to use the RGB alone to identify regions of fog/low stratus. In contrast, the IFR Probability field continues to correctly identify where the obstructions to visibility exist.

Dense Fog over the Deep South

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields, 1312 UTC on 18 December 2017 (Click to enlarge). Ceilings and visibilities are also plotted.

Dense Fog was widespread across the south on Monday morning, 18 December 2017 (See the screen capture below from this site at 1319 UTC).  The GOES-16 IFR Probability field, above, highlights the regions of IFR and near-IFR conditions very well. It has a flat character over much of central Mississippi and Alabama.  These are regions where multiple cloud decks are preventing the satellite from viewing the near-surface clouds, and where Rapid Refresh data are being used as the sole predictor for the probability of IFR conditions.  In contrast, the IFR Probability field over much of Tennessee and Arkansas (for example) has a pixelated look to it — there are small variations over very small distances:  over these two states, higher clouds are not preventing the satellite from viewing near-surface clouds, and satellite data can also be used as a predictor in the IFR Probability fields (See the 10.3 µm – 3.9 µm Brightness Temperature difference field below).

Screen Capture from http://www.weather.gov at 1319 UTC on 18 December 2017 (Click to enlarge). Grey regions are under Dense Fog Advisories.

When high clouds are present, fog detection techniques that rely solely on satellite data struggle to detect low clouds.  Compare the above field, for example, to the 10.3 µm – 3.9 µm Brightness Temperature Difference field (sometimes called the ‘Fog Product’).  In the enhancement used (the default enhancement in AWIPS), fog is depicted as blue (a positive value in the brightness temperature difference) and cirrus/high clouds in black.  There is little signal of Fog over a region where Dense Fog advisories have been issued. Similarly, the Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB, below, that relies on the 10.3 µm – 3.9 µm to highlight low clouds that might be fog, also is not indicating fog (a light cream/cyan color, typically) over much of the Deep South.  When cirrus clouds are present, its use, like that of the Fog Brightness Temperature Difference, is of dubious value.

The last figure, at the bottom, toggles between all three fields at 1312 UTC.

GOES-16 Fog Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) field, 1312 UTC on 18 December 2017  (Click to enlarge)

Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB, 1312 UTC on 18 December 2017  (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 IFR Probability, GOES-16 ‘Fog’ Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), and Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB, all at 1312 UTC on 18 December 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Dense Fog over Idaho

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields, 0502-1302 UTC on 15 December 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

GOES-16 is now in the operational GOES-East position (but not, yet, technically operational) and GOES-16 data started flowing shortly after 1500 UTC on Thursday 14 December. GOES-16 produces excellent imagery over the western United States despite the satellite’s station at 75.2 West Longitude. The animation above shows GOES-16 IFR Probability fields over Idaho, with large values over the Snake River; High Pressure over the region has capped moisture (and pollutants) in the valley, and reduced visibilities are a result. (Click here for the Boise Sounding from 0000 UTC on 15 December from this site) The Pocatello Idaho Forecast Office of the NWS issued (at bottom) Dense Fog Advisories that were valid in the morning of 15 December 2017.

The excellent temporal resolution allows for close monitoring of the eastern edge of the region of fog, expanding eastward from the Snake River Valley into Wyoming and Montana.

The animation above shows consistent GOES-16 IFR Probabilities over the Snake River, and observations of low ceilings and reduced visibilities.  Note that over the eastern part of the Valley, from Pocatello to Idaho Falls and Rexburg, the character of the IFR Probability field at times loses all pixelation.  During this time (around 1000 UTC), model data (in the form of low-level saturation in the Rapid Refresh Model) are contributing to the IFR Probability Field, but satellite data are not because of high-level cirrus.  The animation, below, of the Nighttime Fog Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), confirms the presence of cirrus (they appear grey/black in the color enhancement).  It also suggests why that field alone rather than a fused field such as GOES-R IFR Probability can struggle to detect fog in regions of cirrus.

GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Field (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), 0502-1302 UTC on 15 December 2017 (Click to animate)

Products that use only satellite data, such as the Brightness Temperature Difference field, above, or the Advanced Nighttime Microphysics RGB Product, below, that uses the (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) Brightness Temperature Difference field as the ‘Green’ component, will always struggle to detect fog in regions of cirrus. Of course, the superb temporal resolution of GOES-16 mitigates that effect, as in this case; it’s obvious in this animation what is going on: a band of cirrus is moving over the fog, but it not likely affecting it.  A single snapshot of the scene, however, might not impart the true character of surface conditions.

Advanced NIghttime Microphysics RGB Composite, 0502-1302 UTC on 15 December 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Screencapture of WFO PIH (Pocatello Idaho) Website from 1320 UTC on 15 December 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities in AWIPS

Visible Imagery and GOES-16 IFR Probability Fields, 2202 UTC on 29 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities can now be displayed in AWIPS.  This site has included the product for several months now.  The imagery above, however, is from AWIPS, showing a toggle between Visible GOES-16 Imagery (with and without observations of ceiling heights and visibilities), MVFR (Marginal Visible Flight Rules) Probabilities, IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) Probabilities and LIFR (Low Instrument Flight Rules) Probabilities.  GOES-16 IFR Probability fields are Bayesian and have been trained using about 2 months’ worth of GOES-16 Data.  The LDM data feed will be providing data once GOES-16 Data are flowing again, sometime between 14 December and 20 December, when GOES-16 is on station at 75.2 º W Longitude.

GOES-16 IFR Probability, 0642-1137 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Dense Fog covered parts of Florida early on 30 November, and the animated GOES-16 IFR Probability field, above, shows the benefit of GOES-16’s routine 5-minute temporal cadence:  the motion of the fog field is well-captured, and it’s straightforward to use the field to estimate the onset of IFR conditions.  The Advanced Nigthtime Microphysics RGB for the same time period is shown below, and that product does not well indicate the widespread nature of the reduced ceilings and visibilities over northern Florida.

GOES-16 Night-time Microphysics RGB, 0642-1137 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Screen Capture for http://www.weather.gov at 1148 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Dense Fog Advisories were widespread over the southeastern US on the morning of 30 November, as shown by the screen capture above, from 1148 UTC 30 November. The toggle below shows IFR Probabilities and the Advanced Microphysics RGB for 1147 UTC on 30 November.  The 10.3 µm – 3.9 µm Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) for the same time shown at the bottom. Evidence of multiple cloud decks is apparent in the image. Such mid- and high-level clouds result in an ambiguous signal as far as fog detection goes in both the BTD and in the RGB. IFR Probabilities give a consistent signal in those regions that relies on Rapid Refresh Model output suggesting low-level saturation is present.

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities and the GOES-16 Advanced Microphysics RGB at 1147 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 Fog Brightness Temperature Difference (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm), 1147 UTC on 30 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Dense Fog Advisories over Memphis

Dense Fog Advisories were issued over Memphis and adjacent portions of the mid-south on Tuesday morning, 7 November. (Click here for a 1230 UTC screen capture from the Memphis National Weather Service webpage). The Advisory text is at the bottom of the post.

GOES-16 Brightness Temmperature Difference field (10.3 µm – 3.9 µm) from 0502 through 1252 UTC on 7 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

GOES-R IFR Probabilities are computed using Legacy (Operational) GOES (GOES-13 and GOES-15) and Rapid Refresh model information; Preliminary IFR Probability fields computed with GOES-16 data are available here. IFR Probability fields based on GOES-16 will be available via LDM Request when GOES-16 becomes operational as GOES-East (currently scheduled for some time between 11 and 20 December 2017).

The animation above shows the GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Product (at every 10 minutes, rather than the typical 5-minute temporal cadence of GOES-16 over the continental US) during the night on 7 November.  In the default color enhancement shown, clouds made up of water droplets are show up as cyan and blue whereas higher clouds are black.  Note also the effects of increasing solar reflectance at the end of the animation:  the brightness temperature difference is switching sign as increasing amounts of 3.9 µm radiation are reflected off the clouds.

It could be difficult to use the animation above, alone, to heighten situational awareness of a developing region of fog because of the confounding effects of higher clouds.  Additionally, infrared satellite imagery is challenged to detect cloud thickness:  are the stratus clouds detected (cyan/blue in the enhancement) mid-level, low-level or both?

IFR Probability fields can screen out regions of mid-level stratus, regions that are not so important from the point of view of transportation.  This is because Rapid Refresh Model output is used as a predictor in the statistical model underlying IFR Probability fields.  If the Rapid Refresh Fields do not show low-level near-saturation, the IFR Conditions are less likely.

Consider, for example, the animation below of IFR Probability fields computed for GOES-13 data.  At the beginning of the animation, the fields clearly distinguish between regions where dense fog is occurring near Memphis, and where mid-level stratus is more common (over northern Mississippi).  As dawn approaches, reports of fog become more widespread over Mississippi — but the product has given a timely alert to how conditions might differ over a short region that was not possible with the single brightness temperature difference product alone.

GOES-13 IFR Probability fields, hourly from 0315-1215 UTC on 7 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-R IFR Probabilities are available via an LDM feed to National Weather Service Offices. At present, IFR/Low IFR and Marginal IFR Probabilities (and Cloud Thickness) fields that are sent are those created by the operational GOES-East Satellite, GOES-13.  IFR Probability Products based on GOES-16 are being produced now, however, and are available here. The short animation below shows a behavior similar to the product based on GOES-13, but GOES-16 has far better temporal and spatial resolution!  Click here for a toggle between GOES-13 IFR Probabilities, GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Fields, and GOES-16 IFR Probabilities at 0715 UTC.

When GOES-16 is operational as GOES-East, currently scheduled to occur between 11 and 20 December 2017, the LDM feed will supply GOES-East IFR Probabilities computed with GOES-16 data.

GOES-16 IFR Probabilities, 0402-0557 UTC on 7 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

Suomi NPP flew over the region at 0740 UTC on 7 November, and there was ample illumination to see the clouds. Multiple cloud decks and levels are apparent below.

Suomi-NPP Day Night Visible Imagery (0.70 µm) Near-Constant Contrast Product, 0741 UTC on 7 November 2017 (Click to enlarge)

URGENT – WEATHER MESSAGE
National Weather Service Memphis TN
1228 AM CST Tue Nov 7 2017

…A Dense Fog Advisory is in Effect for Portions of the Midsouth
including the Memphis Metro Area…

ARZ036-048-049-MSZ001>004-007-008-TNZ088>090-071500-
/O.EXT.KMEG.FG.Y.0025.171107T0700Z-171107T1500Z/
Crittenden-St. Francis-Lee AR-DeSoto-Marshall-Benton MS-Tippah-
Tunica-Tate-Shelby-Fayette-Hardeman-
Including the cities of West Memphis, Forrest City, Marianna,
Southaven, Olive Branch, Holly Springs, Ashland, Ripley MS,
Tunica, Senatobia, Bartlett, Germantown, Collierville, Memphis,
Millington, Somerville, Oakland, and Bolivar
1228 AM CST Tue Nov 7 2017

…DENSE FOG ADVISORY NOW IN EFFECT UNTIL 9 AM CST THIS MORNING…

* VISIBILITY…Less than one-half mile.

* TIMING…Through 9 AM CST Tuesday.

* IMPACTS…Dense fog will most commonplace outside of the
Memphis urban center and near bodies of water. Travel may
become difficult due to limited visibilities.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS…

A Dense Fog Advisory means visibilities will frequently be
reduced to less than one quarter mile. If driving…slow down…
use your low beam headlights…and leave plenty of distance ahead
of you.

&&

$$

JAB

GOES-16 IFR Probability with Dense Fog in the Upper Midwest

GOES-16 IFR Probability fields, 0932-1157 UTC on 23 October 2017 (Click to animate)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing.

Dense Fog developed over the upper Midwest on Monday morning, 23 October 2017, and Advisories were issued as shown below.  GOES-R IFR Probabilities are now being created using GOES-16 data, those data are now available at this link.  The uniformity of the IFR Probability fields shown above over WI suggest that high-level clouds are present, and the GOES-16 satellite could not therefore view the fog/stratus near the ground: only Rapid Refresh data were used to create GOES-R IFR Probability values.

GOES-R IFR Probability fields available to NWS Field Offices via LDM are still being computed with GOES-13 and GOES-15 data.  When GOES-16 becomes operational as GOES-East at 75.2º W Longitude, planned for December, IFR Probabilities available through the LDM will be created with GOES-16 and GOES-15 data. The switchover will happen when GOES-16 becomes operational.

Screenshot of NWS webpage from Sullivan, WI at 1200 UTC on 23 October 2017. Dense Fog advisories are in place from SW Wisconsin to NE Wisconsin. Note also the Radar imagery showing departing showers. (Click to enlarge)

Resolution and Fog Detection in the mountains of the Appalachia

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing.

Clear skies and light winds allowed for the development of Radiation Fog over parts of West Virginia and surrounding states early on Tuesday 17 October 2017, and IFR conditions were widespread (Source).

GOES-16 and GOES-13 both monitored this event, and toggles between the two brightness temperature difference fields, from 0315, 0415 and 0615 on 17 October, are shown below.  The better spatial resolution (and better precision) of the GOES-16 ABI is apparent in the imagery:  At 0415 UTC, GOES-16 is detecting river fog in many valleys in West Virginia and Kentucky, and is better resolving the detected fog over the Allegheny River in northwest Pennsylvania.  By 0615 UTC, the fog is also detected by GOES-13 — meaning it has increased in size so that the GOES-13 pixel size can detect it.  GOES-16 had a lead time of about 1-2 hours on GOES-13 in this case!

GOES-13 and GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Fields, 0315 UTC on 17 October (Click to enlarge)

GOES-13 and GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Fields, 0415 UTC on 17 October (Click to enlarge)

GOES-13 and GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference Fields, 0615 UTC on 17 October (Click to enlarge)

At present, GOES-R IFR Probabilities are created using GOES-13 data (or GOES-15 data for the western United States).  As might be expected, the GOES-R IFR Probabilities also lagged the GOES-16 Brightness Temperature Difference field in alerting to fog.  The short animation below shows values hourly from 0315-0615.  Very small IFR Probabilities are present at 0315 and 0415 — because, in part, the GOES-13 Imager cannot resolve the developing Fog/Stratus (and the Rapid Refresh model lacks the horizontal resolution to reproduce what is happening in narrow river valleys).  By 0515, and 0615 especially, GOES-R IFR probabilities are suggesting that a region of fog is likely.

One other thing to note:  There is a small signal in the brightness temperature difference field at 0315 UTC, above, in northwest Ohio in both GOES-13 and GOES-16 imagery.  There is no corresponding signal in the IFR Probability field.  The conclusion is that this is mid-level stratus that is not affecting surface visibility or ceilings.

GOES-R IFR Probabilities, hourly from 0315-0615 UTC on 17 October 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-R IFR Probabilities, supplied via an LDM feed to National Weather Service Offices, will use GOES-13 (or GOES-15) imagery until GOES-16 is operational at 75.2 degrees West Longitude.  When GOES-16 is operational, GOES-R IFR Probabilities will use GOES-16 data, and that data will flow through the LDM.  In the meantime, GOES-16 IFR Probabilities can be viewed at this site.

Fog returned the following morning.  Link.

The GOES-16 Version of GOES-R IFR Probability

GOES-R IFR Probability fields computed using GOES-16 Data and Rapid Refresh Model Output, 1042 UTC on 3 October 2017 (Click to enlarge)

GOES-16 data posted on this page are preliminary, non-operational and are undergoing testing

The suite of GOES-R IFR Probability products are now being computed using GOES-16 data, with a 5-minute temporal cadence over CONUS.  Products include IFR Probability (above), Low IFR Probability, MVFR Probability and Cloud Height.  These products are only available for now at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/geocat ;  however, work is progressing to have the fields available through an LDM feed.  The GOES-R IFR Probability fields computed using Legacy GOES (GOES-13 and GOES-15) continue to flow to the National Weather Service via the LDM.